Periodontal Disease

Periodontal disease includes gingivitis and periodontitis “Gingivitis is generally regarded as a site‐specific inflammatory condition initiated by dental biofilm accumulation and characterized by gingival redness and oedema and the absence of periodontal attachment loss. Gingivitis is commonly painless, rarely leads to spontaneous bleeding, and is often characterized by subtle clinical changes, resulting in most patients being unaware of the disease or unable to recognize it.”

Dental professionals
MO Idb 758 150

“Periodontitis is a chronic multifactorial inflammatory disease associated with dysbiotic plaque biofilms and characterized by progressive destruction of the tooth‐supporting apparatus. Its primary features include the loss of periodontal tissue support, manifested through clinical attachment loss and radiographically assessed alveolar bone loss, presence of periodontal pocketing and gingival bleeding.”

Trombelli  et al. 2018, Papapanou et al. 2018